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Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have __1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.

Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.

While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 .For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI.

Today we have a(an) _14 _ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes_15_in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes _16_ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. _17_very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.

Negative attitudes toward obesity, _18_in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity _19_.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities. Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama launched a high-visibility campaign _20_ childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.

1. [A] denied [B] conduced [C] doubled [D] ensured

【答案】B concluded

【解析】 题干中,一系列的研究已经_____,事实上,正常体重的人的患病风险要高于超重的人。根据句义,后面的部分实际上是研究的结论,因此concluded 符合题意,其他选项denied(否认)与意义相反,doubled(翻倍)与题意较远,ensured(确保)不符合题意,因为研究不能确保后面的事 实,只能得出后面的事实作为结论。所以正确答案为B。

2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome

【答案】A protective

【解析】 题干中,对于某些健康情况,超重事实上是有_____。根据前文研究的结论,超重能减少罹患疾病的风险,说明超重具有一定的保护作用。Dangerous 和文章意思相反,sufficient表示充足,troublesome表示有麻烦,不符合题意,所以正确答案为A。

3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore

【答案】C likewise

【解析】第三句话中,较重的女人患缺钙的比例低于较瘦的女人。_____,在老年人中,一定程度上超重……。需要填入的是和前半句表示顺接的词 语。A选项instead表示逆接的句意关系,B选项however也表示逆接,D选项therefore表示因此,只有C选项likewise意为同样 地;也,而且。因此正确答案为C。

4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example

【答案】A indicator

【解析】本句话中,_____,一定程度上超重,经常是健康的_____。A选项,表示指示器,指标。B选项objective表示客观;C选 项origin表示来源,D选项example表示例子。根据前面的文章内容,已经明确指出超重代表了健康,因此超重是健康的指标。因此正确答案为A。

5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern

【答案】D concern

【解析】本句话的句意是,需要更加_____是,很难对肥胖加以定义。A、impact(印象);B、relevance(相关性);C、 assistance(辅助);D、concern(关注)。前文已经说到肥胖事实上有利健康,但是又面临一个问题,到底如何去定义肥胖,因此需要更加关 注的是对肥的定义,其他选项均不符合题意,所以正确答案为D。

6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in of

【答案】A in terms of

【解析】题干中,肥胖经常______体质指数,或称为BMI来定义。A、in terms of ,根据……,就……而言。B、In case of 表示在某种情况下, C、in favor of 表示赞成,以……来取代,D、in respect of,关于……。因此正确答案为A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用BMI作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标,希望考生能够记住这一背景知识,方便日后做题。

7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies

【答案】C equals

【解析】本题题干中BMI_____体重除以身高的平方,这里是用文字叙述了BMI指数得出的方法,也就是一个数学公式,所以equal符合题 意。A measure(测量)、B determine表示确定;D modify(修订)。句义就是BMI等于体重除以身高的平方。

8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part

【答案】C in turn

【解析】本题题干中,肥胖_____能够分成中度肥胖、重度肥胖和极度肥胖。A、in essence(事实上、实际上); B、in contrast (相反地);C、in turn(依次); D、in part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖依次分级,所以正确答案为C。

9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward

【答案】D straightforward

【解析】题干中,相比之下,这样的数字标准看起来_____,实际上不是的。A、complicated (复杂);B、conservative(保守)、C、variable(可变的);D、straightforward(直截了当);这里的数字标准指 的就是肥胖指数,肥胖指数分为三类,而且算法比较简单,所以A复杂不正确,B选项保守,用于描述一种数学公式,不恰当,一名患者或一名受试者的BMI一般 是确定的,因此可变的也不符合题意,D选项straightforward表示直截了当,符合题意,因此正确答案为D。

10. [A] so [B] unlike [C] since [D] unless

【答案】B while

【解析】本句中,一些人有很高的BMI,实际上身材正好,_____其他人有较低的BMI指数,可能_____。从前半句我们可以看出,有些人 的BMI指数很高,应该属于体重肥胖的人,事实上身材正好,这里说明的是反常的现象,后半句是其他人的BMI指数较低,而_____较差。A、so(所 以);B、while(而);C、since(因为);D、unless(除非)四个选项中只有while有转折的含义,其他选项均不符合题意,所以正确 答案为B。

11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste

【答案】A shape

【解析】本题可以简化为:Some … are fit, while others … may be in poor .不难看出,前后意义相反,且fit(体型健康)与in poor 对应,与之最相关是A shape(外形),故为正确答案。"精神"、"均衡"、"品味"都相差比较远,可以排除。

12. [A] start [B] quality [C] retire [D] stay

【答案】B qualify

【解析】本题顺应前文意义:有一些人体型很好,有些人体型体型肥胖。接下来举例说有些专业足球运动员 是肥胖的,"开始"不符;"处在"也不符合句意;"退休"内容无关;"被认为"符合句意,正确。

13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant

【答案】C normal

【解析】本句不难理解:有些人脂肪过高,但是BMI却 。所需词汇明显是正向的,排除A、B;D属中性,且不符合句意,C(正常的)契合,为正确答案。

14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency

【答案】D tendency

【解析】本题解题关键是后半句:to stigmatize obesity(抵毁肥胖),作为划线部分的后置定语,将四个选项"选择""理由""机会""倾向"代入划线处,最符合句意的是D(倾向)。后面一句也进 一步证实了(出现在媒体中的肥胖者脸都是打了马赛马的)。

15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored

【答案】b pictured

【解析】空格所在句提到了媒体,根据语境,上句讲到当今我们都污蔑肥胖,所以本句的意思应该是媒体污蔑肥胖,四个选项中,跟媒体相关系的词汇只有b picture 意思为刻画,描写,描述。

16. [A] [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated

【答案】D associated

【解析】空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰,缺乏意志力,对成功的期望值不高。空格后面提到的懒惰,缺乏意志力和对成功的期望 值不高都是与肥胖相关的表现,分析四个选项,A. 与。。。相比;B 与。。。相结合;C. 和。。。和解;都不符合题意,只有D与。。。相联系,相关符合句意。

17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only

【答案】A even

【解析】空格所在句的意思是_____小孩子蔑视超重,而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。本空格缺少一个副词,根据语境记忆常识,此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇,分析四个选项,只有A even 即使符合题意。

18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded

【答案】D grounded


激发一批反肥胖的____。本句没有出现任何转折词,说明空前后所表达的意思是一致的,反对肥胖,是基于对健康的关注,分析四个选项,能够表达此意思的词汇,只有选项D grounded,意思是基于。

19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies

【答案】D policies

【解析】解答此题需要联系空格后面紧跟着的句子。空后的句子出现了一系列表示同一个语义场的词汇,比如 hospital system ; ban; many employers institute, 指向的意思是一个系统中所出台的政策的问题,浏览四个选项,D选项policies 符合题意,直接入选。

20.[A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without

【答案】B against

【解析】本段的主题是反对肥胖,本句话属于细节的句子,用来支持这个主题,空格所在句讲到米歇尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童 肥胖,甚至告诉奥兹博士,它代表了我们国家最大的安全威胁。空格中缺少词汇应该含有反对,反抗的意思,纵观四个选项,只有B against 符合题意。



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